Sa´adeh enriched the national libraries in Syria with great works on many subjects. First, he wrote a comprehensive treatise on comparative religion: Islam in Its Two Messages: Christianity and Muhammedanism.
Second, he wrote a thorough sociological work in the Arabic language: the Rise of Nations (Nushu’ al-Umam). This book is considered as the second achievement of its kind after “Ibn Khaldoun’s Muqaddimah (Prolegomenon)”.
Third, Sa´adeh produced a new theory in literature. This theory has had and continues to have a great impact upon contemporary Syrian writers and poets. Its influence can be seen clearly in the cultural life of Syria. It was responsible, in the view of critics and scholars, for the Modernization Movement that emerged in Syria during the fifties of the twentieth century. This theory in particular and Sa´adeh’s philosophy of ‘spiritual-materialism’ in general have engrossed a great number of intellectuals, writers, poets, playwrights and artists: indeed, most of them acknowledged the influence of Sa´adeh’s theory on them.
The Tammuzi Movement
The influence of Sa´adeh’s literary theory appeared clearly, first, in the Tammuzi Movement, a literary current related to Tammuz, the God of fertility, worshiped by ancient Syrians. This movement, known also as “the Shi’r Group” included distinguished modern poets of widely varying talents such: Khalil Hawi (1925 - 1982), Ali Ahmad Sa’id Esper [known as Adonis] (b. 1929), Badr Shakir al-Sayyab (1926 – 1964), Unsi al-Hajj (b. 1937), Nazeer El-Azama (b. 1930), Fu’ad Rifqa (b. 1930), Isam Mahfuz (b. 1939), Taufiq Sayigh (1923-1971), Jabra Ibrahim Jabra (b. 1919) and Yusuf al-Khal (1917 – 1987). This group of poets related the ancient gods to the modern Arab World and used Shi’r Hurr, or what they called al-shi’r al-hadith. They rejected all the conventions of Arabic poetry and all the accepted values of form and use of language. They contended “it was possible to remain an Arab poet without using the conventional form, style and themes of classical literature.” In other words, they were against the unchanged values and predetermined rules of the Arabic literary heritage and in favour of moulding the language, its grammar and style, to the new demands of the modern era. Moreover, in their poetry they concentrated on the idea of the change of the seasons, giving hope to the winter of Arab discontent after the Palestinian disaster of 1948 and to the possibility of rebirth. This idea meant that winter will give birth to spring, and death will ultimately produce life and resurrection. The adoption of myths in poetry served, according to Salma Khadra Jayyusi, as “interpretation of present Arab history in positive and concrete terms”. Thus, she stated:
Al-Sayyab’s implicit use of the Tammuz myth in his famous poem ‘Unshudat al-Matar (1954) was a supreme example which triggered forth various experiments using either the same myth (under different names such as Ba´al in Khalil Hawi, the Phoenix in Adonis), or Biblical stories such as the story of Christ’s crucification and resurrection which also exploited, or that of La´azar (Lazarus) employed by Hawi. All these poems span time and are dynamically and basically concerned with change, with transcendence, with the eventual arrival at fertility and fruition.
For his part, the distinguished poet Dr. Nazeer El-Azama who was associated with the “Shi’r Group” asserted that most poets of the Tammuzi movement, except Jabra Ibrahim Jabra and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab, were members of the Social Nationalist movement of Sa´adeh, or were related to it in one way or another. El-Azama contended that the three pioneers of the Tammuzi movement, were not only members in Sa´adeh’s party, but also held important intellectual and cultural posts in it. In other words, they were too close to Sa´adeh and acquainted with his writings and ideas on literature and poetry.
Affirming Sa´adeh’s influence on the Tammuzi movement, M.G. Barout emphasized that the movement of Shi’r magazine was rooted in The Intellectual Struggle in Syrian Literature of Antun Sa´adeh.
Adonis was born in 1929 in a Syrian village, Qassabin, on the coast near Latakia. He was a member in the SSNP for several years, but later left the party. He graduated in philosophy from the Syrian University in 1954, but two years later he left Syria where he had been engaged in political activity in connection with the SSNP and settled in Beirut. He studied one year (1960) at the Sorbonne in Paris. Adonis is widely admired in the Arab World and recognized as a pioneer of prose poem. Being a ferocious critic of organized religion and politics and an outspoken champion of secular democracy, the Late Professor Edward Said referred to him as "today's most daring and provocative Arab poet." Adonis has published several volumes of verse: Delilah (1950), The Earth has Said (1952), First Poems (1957), If I Say, Syria (1958), Leaves in the Wind (1958), Songs of Mihyar the Damascene (1961), The Book of Metamorphosis and Migration in The Regions of Day and Night (1965), The Stage and the Mirrors (1968), A Time between Ashes and Roses (1970) and A Tomb for New York (1971). The poet’s pronouncements on contemporary Arabic poetry have been collected and published in one volume (in 1972) under the title the Time for Poetry. The volume includes several articles, papers presented at various conferences as well as letters sent to other Lebanese poets. The poet has also published many studies of Arab culture and history, notably the book "The Changing and the Fixed: A Study of Conformity and Originality in Arab Culture." Many of his poems have been translated into different languages. As far as the influence of Sa´adeh’s theory on him, he explained that The Intellectual Struggle in Syrian Literature gave the first impetus to his poetic approach and ideas: it influenced, to a great extent, a whole generation of poets such as Sa’id ´Aql (b. 1912), Salah Labaki (1906 – 1955), Yusuf al-Khal (1917-1987), Fu’ad Soulayman (1912 – 1951) and Khalil Hawi (1925-1982).
Yusuf al-Khal was born in Tripoli, Lebanon. He was educated in literature and philosophy at the American University of Beirut where he taught from 1944 to 1948. In 1948, he left for the USA where he worked for the United Nations and in journalism, editing the Arabic Mahjari paper al-Huda. In 1955, he returned to Beirut and resumed teaching at the AUB. In 1957, he founded Shi’r magazine and the press Dar Majallat Shi’r. Shi’r magazine became the mouthpiece of the free verse movement (the Tammuzi Movement) till it ceased in 1964. It was resuscitated in 1967, but disappeared in 1969. Dar Majallat Shi’r published many poetic collections, fictional works, books on literary criticism, and other publications by those poets associated with Shi’r magazine. Al-Khal’s collections include al-Hurriya (Freedom –1944), al-Bi’r al-Mahjura (The Forsaken Well – 1958), and Qasa’id fi’l-Arba’in (Poems at the Age of Forty – 1960). He translated Carl Sandburg’s Abraham Lincoln in 1959, T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land, selections from Robert Frost in 1962, as well as an anthology of American verse, the New Testament and Gibran’s The Prophet. He also wrote plays, such as Hirudiya (Herodias – 1954) in verse and Thalath Masrahiyyat (Three Plays – 1959). In his poetry, al-Khal, as with other Tammuz poets, related to Tammuz and the ancient mythologies of Syria. In his collection The Deserted Well in particular, one finds a cry for rebirth. The earth and water are Tammuz; Tammuz is Jesus Christ; and Christ is man. This symbolic equation seems to be the basis of almost every poem in the collection.
Khalil Hawi was born in Shwayr’, Lebanon. After completing his Ph.D. dissertation on Khalil Giban at Cambridge University in 1959, he was appointed as Professor of Arabic at the American University of Beirut. He was affiliated with the SSNP since his youth days. He left the party after the execution of its leader, accusing the emerging leadership of going astray from Sa´adeh’s teachings. Nevertheless, he maintained all through his life good and friendly relations with the SSNP. Hawi was recognized as a leading poet in the Arab World. He was also a respected lecturer. One of his friends, Fuad Sa´id Haddad, who compiled a short biography on him, stated, “tragedy was ever present to his consciousness. The least event in Lebanon or in the Arab world and the least event not to his taste at the University would set him instantly at rage and in revolt.” Indeed, Khalil was reportedly seen depressed and in rage on the evening of June 6th, 1982, the day when the “Israeli” army was invading Lebanon. Referring to this invasion, he said to his friend Fuad: “How can we wipe out this historic shame?”. That evening Khalil Hawi shot himself in the temples on the terrace of his house.
Sa’id Taqi al-Din
Sa’id Taqi al-Din affiliated with the SSNP during the latter part of his career. He met Antun Sa´adeh and was attracted to his party by its idealistic rejection of sectarianism, its secular posture and its condemnation of feudalism and many social maladies that undermined the national interest. He was born in 1904 to a long-established and respected family in a mountainous Druze village, Ba´aqlin, in the Shuf area.
Sa’id completed his studies at the American University of Beirut (AUB). He started his literary career on the campus of the AUB, involving himself in political issues and became the president of the Alumni Association. He established himself as one of the prominent Lebanese prose writers during the middle of the twentieth century. He wrote sarcastic epistles, drama, short sayings and short stories that possessed invincible, definite narrative plots. He excelled as a novelist possessing an ability to portray scenes of ordinary life and to treat subjects extracted from the heart of society. He used a distinct linguistic texture consisting of simplified words derived from the ordinary, everyday life. In his criticism or advocacy, he often used sharp and harsh vocabulary, which earned him notoriety.
Sa’id’s high quality works, in content and form, consist of popular plays, short stories, journalistic socio-political essays, articles and speeches. They also include articles and letters in English. Some of his spirited articles appeared in the columns of Al-Kulliyah at the AUB. Commenting on his contribution, Dr. Alfred H. Howell wrote:
Though in many ways pioneering in the light of Lebanese literature at the time, Taky's main contribution in these works, lies not so much in their originality of conception or profundity in content, but in his style: a biting sarcasm, assisted with a quick moving language, a strong sense of humour, a remarkable ability of detection and of drawing scenes and sharp contrasts, a tremendous skill in drawing on Lebanese life, particularly village life: its customs, practices, beliefs and feuds whether political, religious, social, cultural or other. A11 these give Taky Deen a distinct way of writing which is entirely his own, and for which he is remembered.
For many critics, Sa’id was a literary school of his own. The great man saw himself in precisely in those terms: he called his ‘school’ “Sa’takyyah” , as John Dayyah asserts, or “Sa’id TakyDeenism”, as the Lebanese poet and critic, Henri Zoghaid had once described.
Sa’id joined the SSNP in 1951. The SSNP became a major factor in his life until his death in 1960. He gave himself to it and behaved as a dedicated idealist. His writings, mostly in Arabic, reflected his devotion to the cause of the party. “Sa’id Taky Deen” wrote Zoghaib, “was a storm in modern Arabic literature. But he chose to pour all his storms into political commitment”. He also commented “Sa’id Taky Deen was not a man who wrote literature, but rather [he] was literature in the form of a man”. He was moved by the tragedy of Palestine, which led him to devote his time and pen for the Palestinian question. He wrote a moving account of Sa´adeh’s swift and hasty execution, under the catchy title: “The Priest Who Confessed Him”. This account is widely read by Sa´adeh’s sympathizers and critics.
Salah Labaki, the son of the first Chairman of the Lebanese Parliament, Na?um Labaki and son-in-law of the famed scholar Salma al-Sayigh, was a poet, writer and recognized lawyer. His sculptor friend, Yusuf al-Huwyek, introduced him to Sa´adeh who met him at his mother-in-law’s house. He joined the SSNP in 1935 and took an active role in the high hierarchy of the party. Sa´adeh appointed him as his deputy and as a member of the first central committee for propaganda and publication. The Lawyers Syndicate of Beirut condemned his arrest by the Lebanese authorities following the discovery of the party. In May 1936, Sa´adeh appointed him as a Dean of Information and later as a Chairman of a Higher Executive Committee. He represented the SSNP, with Ma’moun ‘Ayyas, in a Conference of the Coast in March 1936 to demand that the areas added to Lebanon in 1920 be returned to Syria.
Soon after, Labaki drifted from the SSNP and became spiritually closer to the thoughts of Sa?id ´Aql. One of his works, Disgust (Sa’m, 1949), was introduced by Sa?id ´Aql, who wrote:
If Salah as a politician was a man of principle, then as a poet he espoused perfume, night, hills, and roaring waves. With him we learned how to sniff a handful of earth and venerate it and how to spot a crack in the sea beyond a sail, a crack that would lead us to a kingdom we had built there at the ends of the earth as broad as the aspiration I our hearts.
Other works of Labaki include: From the Depths of the Mountain (Min a?maq al-jabal, 1945); The Moon’s Cradle (Urjuhat al-qamar, n.d.); Promises (Mawa?id, n.d.); Strangers (Ghuraba’, 1956).
Muhammad al-Maghut, a self-educated and genuinely gifted poet, was born in Salamiya, Syria, and lived in Damascus. He is a poet concerned with poverty, fragmentation and alienation. His poem is full of images laid out alongside each other. He uses all sorts of phrases: prose poetry, poetic prose, and artistic prose. One critic has labeled him as “the prince of the prose poem” who has no rivals for that title. He worked as a journalist and wrote for television and the cinema. His collections include Huzn fi Daw’ al-Qamar (Sadness in the Moonlight – 1959), Churfa bi-Malayin al-Judran (A Room With Millions of Walls –1964), and al-Farah Laysa Mihnati (Joy Is Not My Profession – 1970). He has also written two plays, one of them is entitled al-‘Usfur al-Ahdab (The Hunchbacked Bird –1967), which has been described as “a very courageous and important literary work” that treats the political and social climate of the Arab world at that time.
Al-Maghut joined the SSNP, which he had found to be a safe haven for depressed and deprived people like himself. The SSNP, he stated, “was a kind of protection for a person with no wealth or fame”. He confessed that his poetic ingenuity developed following his imprisonment because of his association with the SSNP. When he moved to Beirut in the fifties, he associated himself with Adonis, Nazeer El-Azama and Yusuf al-Khal.
Not only did poets of the Tammuzi movement respond to Sa´adeh’s calls for more attention to the cultural and political history of Syria and to her ancient mythologies, but other poets did respond as well. Among those, Nazeer El-Azama mentioned the following names: Orkhan Muyassar (1914 – 1965), Muhammad al-Maghut (b. 1934), Fayaz Khadour, Kamal Kir Beik, Ghassan Mattar (b. 1942), Abdulla Qubarsi, Muhammad Yusuf Hamoud (1919- 1994) and others. To these, the following names can be added: Elias al-Dayyri, Yussef Debs, George Massrou´a, Shawqi Khairrallah, Assad al-Ashquar, Ma’moun ‘Ayyas, Suliman Kattani, Nawef Hardan, George Abd al-Massih, John Dayah, Eliyah Abou Chdid, ‘Ajej al-Mouhtar, William Sa´ab, Hanina Daher, Adib al-Haddad, Khattar Abou Ibrahim, Yusuf Rouhana and many young poets and writers from Syria and Lebanon.
Commenting on Sa´adeh’s literary works and views, Dr. Muhammad al-‘Abed Hammoud concluded that: “Sa´adeh’s literary views render him, in my opinion, the most important among the founders of the Modernization Movement, which has reached its dead end by deviating from its right way and its deep [true] identity as designed and affirmed by Sa´adeh”. By the same token, Yussef Debs asserted that The Intellectual Struggle in Syrian Literature has not ceased to be the example followed by any modernization in literature in both poetry and prose.
The late leader of the Progressive Socialist Party, Kamal Junblatt, regarded Sa´adeh as the originator of a renaissance throughout the East which has no resemblance”. Likewise, Mustafa Abdul-Satir highlighted the impact of the Syrian Social Nationalist Movement on all levels of society by describing it as the first organized political party to formulate a comprehensive ideology, which made radical transformation in political action and paved the way for other political parties and organizations to follow its path. He stated: “The influence of Sa´adeh’s school of thought, philosophy, literature and sociology in all its branches is evident in most intellectuals and innovators including those who are outside the circles of the party”. He noted that the impact of this school, which has imposed itself influentially and effectively on the entire nation and even outside its boundaries, is evident in the ideas and writings of many scholars such as Ghassan Tuwayni, Muhammad al-Ba´albaki, Sa?id ´Aql, Sa’id Taqi al-Din, Muhammad Yusuf Hamoud, Adonis, Yusuf al-Khal, George Massrou´a, Khalil Hawi, Fayez Say’egh, Hisham Sharabi, al-Ma´alifas and many others. It is also evident in all fields of thought, culture, philosophy, literature, poetry, theatre, music, and art as well as in all contemporary intellectual trends.
The SSNP succeeded not only in attracting a large number of intellectuals and personalities, but also in inspiring political action and providing a model for other political organizations during their formative phase. It is widely acknowledged that, on accounts of its nationalistic ideas, the SSNP has played an important role in shaping political events in Syria and Lebanon. The party, wrote its outspoken critic Daniel Pipes, “has had profound political importance in the twentieth-century history of Lebanon and Syria, the two states where it has been most active”. Commenting on the influence of the SSNP in the 1950s, the well-known contemporary historian Abu Khaldun Sati’ al-Husri stated that “... this party succeeded in creating a very powerful intellectual and political current in Syria and Lebanon”.
What’s more, the SSNP and its secular principles have succeeded in penetrating the impediments of all religious sects in Lebanon. As noted by Labib Zuwiyya Yamak, they “have appealed to a large segment of the people in Lebanon and other regions of geographical Syria and have influenced or even shaped social thinking of the intelligentsia since the thirties”.
Sa´adeh’s impact on music
Sa´adeh influenced many musicians, composers and playwrights during and after his lifetime. Among those musicians who made use of Sa´adeh’s ideas in their works, or were associated in some way with the SSNP, are: Halim al-Roumi, Zakki Naseif, Walid Ghoulmei, Tawfeiq al-Basha and the Rihbani brothers. Tuwfeiq al-Basha had even publicaly expressed his gratitude to the school of Antun Sa´adeh by saying:
“I am indebted to the Social Nationalist School which made me aware of my reality that originally existed through history. Therefore, all my works focus on this line.”
Similarly, Zaki Nassif admitted that he, like many artists, was affiliated with the SSNP and influenced by its doctrine. He told the Lebanese daily An-Nahar:
Many of those who worked in the artistic field used to be members of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party. Along with many others from my hometown, Mashghara, my borther included, I joined this party. I was in my forties, which means that my ideological affiliation was the result of a mature and conscious choice, not of youth tendencies. I affiliated to the national doctrine in the fifties when the doctrine was an object of widespread interest among the educated in the countryside and I remain faithful to it to this day. For national loyalty is not transient: it is a life-long commitment.
Zaki Nassif was a famous musician and one of the first generation of Lebanese composers who accompanied the rise of Radio Liban in the 1940s and contributed material to Radio Orient in the 1950s. He was involved in music and country folk poetry (Zagal, maannaa, ataba, mijana, abu el Zuluf, etc) at an early age. In 1957, he organized with other artists the International Baalbek Festival producing “Ayyam Elhassad” in which Fairuz participated as the leading singer singing Nassif’s famous songs. Zaki Nassif composed material for many celebrated singers among them were Fairuz and Wadih al-Safi. One of his popular and patriotic songs was his upbeat anthem song “Rajeh Yittammar” (Lebanon will be rebuilt) produced during the civil war of Lebanon.
Another well-known musician and singer to affirm Sa´adeh’s profound understanding of music was Farid al-Atrash. He was quoted as saying: “I considered myself talented in the field of music, but this man [Sa´adeh] alerted me to some issues in music of which I was unaware. I was so pleased that I have met him”.
The music of Fairouz and the Rahbanis reflects Sa´adeh's views of music and the genuine spirit of Syrian nationalism. One can clearly notice the direct link between their wonderful music and Sa´adeh’s outlook as set out in his definition of music. The Rihbanis, who succeeded to revolutionize Arabic music by breaking its traditional norms, were very close in their deep and magnificent music, which is filled with tremendous emotional expressions, to that definition. On the other hand, there is a direct correlation between Fairouz's early songs and the idea of Syrian nationalism. There is a collection of old and classical pieces that Fairuz sang for "Sourya” and "wal-Zawbaa" with the help of Zaki Nassif. This correlation, however, is evident in the themes used in Fairouz and the Rahbanis’ songs, which are consistent with Sa´adeh’s views of music. Sa´adeh believed that music, like literature, should include such themes as love for our homeland and the glory of our great history. He indicated that this type of music and how emotionally expressive it can be by using Beethoven's Symphonies as examples.
Without speculating on their relationship with the SSNP, Fairouz and the Rahbanis seemed to have responded to Sa´adeh’s calls to produce sound musical works expressive of the nation’s sentiments and thoughts and the strength and beauty of its mentality. Their wonderful songs and musical productions such as "Petra", "Ayyam Fakhreddine", and "Jbal El-Souan" reflect our great history and glory and depict our heroism and the beauty of our homeland. Moreover, their songs arouse a very powerful feeling of patriotism and nationalism. Indeed, homeland and the nostalgia to it constitute a common theme in most of their songs. Even their love songs never failed to state the importance of the land. Their many songs for Lebanon, Sham (Ya Fatata Sourya), and Palestine (Zahratul Mada'in) leave all their listeners with a feeling of strong emotional attachment to those wonderful places.
All in all, Fairuz and the Rahabneh represent a unique school of music, art and beauty that is deeply rooted in the culture and heritage of Syria. It represents a genuine spirit of Sa´adeh’s outlook.
Sa´adeh’s impact on theatre
Sa´adeh’s impact on theatre was endorsed by an expert in this field: the Lebanese poet, playwright and narrator Issam Mahfouz (b. 1939). Mahfouz was a literary editor of the daily al-Nahar and Professor of Dramatic Arts at the Lebanese University in Beirut. He published four collections of poetry and wrote six plays and several books of literary criticism. He maintained that
“One among the magnificent poetry plays in our modern literature: ‘Cadmous’, written by Sa’id ´Aql, remains indebted to Sa´adeh for his guidance to the poet [Sa’id ´Aql] when he was still in the inner circle of the arising Nationalist Movement”.
In his opinion, “Sa´adeh’s most direct influence in the field of theatre manifests itself in ‘Al-Manbudh’ (foundling), a play written by Sa’id Taqi al-Din in 1951. This was the first theatrical production in Arabic and could be considered the beginning of the committed theatre” in the Arab World.
Sa´adeh’s influence is also obvious through the play works produced by ‘Mouhtaraf Beyrout li al-Massrah’ [The Professional Stage of Beirut] that was established and supervised by Nidal al-Ashqar and her colleague, at that time, Roger Assaf. One noticeable play among these theatrical productions was ‘Majdaloun’, written by Henri Hamatti. I wrote its hymn, adopting it from Tchi Giffarah, and Walid Ghoulmei composed its music. Other plays can be added to the list such as ‘al-Sitara’ [The Curtain] written by Rida Kabrit and Michelle Naba´ah, the short poetry plays of Adonis, published in his volume ‘Awraq fi al-Rih’ [Leaves in the Wind] and producations by Nazeer Naba´ah and others. Although I am not indebted directly to the impact of his thought, his martyrdom was a subject matter discussed in my play “Why Serhan Serhan rejected what Sa´adeh said about Firjalla Hellou in ‘Studio 71’ which I presented in 1971..”
When referring to the theatre of Beirut one cannot but mention Nidal al-Ashqar, who is described as a “woman of fire” and compared to a city- and to what city but Beirut. Nidal is a gifted artist and well-known theatre performer in Beirut and the Arab World. She belongs to a family with a long history of political activity and association with the SSNP whose ideals and principles have remained the parameters of her life-long work to this day. The Egyptian Al-Ahram Weekly said the following about her:
Raised “in a legacy of struggle”, she experienced the pain of deprivation when her father was imprisoned for the principles he upheld: freedom, pan-Arabism… These values still determine her choices, in her work and in her life.
Her works reflect her deep concern for Beirut’s fate and for the Arabs’ plight in general. Her contribution to theatre is rich and varied. Before the civil war of Lebanon, she had established her experimental dramatic company co-operating with leading performers and writers such as Roger Assaf, Rida Kabrit, Michelle Naba´ah, Unssey Al-Hajj and others. Her advanced experiment was disrupted by the war, which forced Nidal to set up a cast in Jordan, Al-Mumathiloun Al-Arab (The Arab Actors). At one point, the group traveled from one Arab country to another performing a play called One Thousand and One Stories in Suq Ukaz. On the television front, Nidal took the lead role in various dramatic works produced for several television networks in the Arab World. In 1994, Nidal returned to Beirut and established an important cultural stage: Al-Madina Theatre, which has been operating under her direct supervision.
As a nationalist thinker, Sa´adeh has developed a school of thought that offers guidelines for writers in many different fields and especially in literature. His literary works, in particular, and his national, philosophical ideas have continued to influence Syrian scholars, poets, musicians, and artists and have already begun to attract the attention of many students and researchers. His contribution to Arabic Syrian literature cannot be discounted.
 For more details on the impact of SSNP in cultural life, see Edmond Melhem, The Contribution of Antun Sa´adeh and Others to Arabic Literature, Honours Thesis, Department of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Melbourne, 1988.
 In Sumerian legend, Tammuz was a vegetation god, who died at midsummer and was brought back from the underworld in spring by his lover Ishtar.
 He was born and educated in Beirut. He was a literary editor of the daily newspaper An-Nahar. He was influenced by modern French literature. He participated in Shi’r magazine and published five collections of poetry. He also translated works by Artaud, Breton, and Prévert.
 He was born in Syria and educated at the American University of Beirut and Tubingen University, Germany. He lived for a time in the USA. He lectured at the American University of Beirut. His publications include five volumes of poetry, a collection of philosophical essays and two selections of translations from the poems of Rilke and HÖlderlin.
 Born in Syria and spent his childhood in Tiberias, Palestine. A contemporary of Jabra Ibrahim Jabra at the Arab College in Jerusalem. He studied at the American University of Beirut and taught at Pembroke College, Cambridge, and at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. In 1961, he founded and edited the magazine Hiwar. His publications include three volumes of poetry and translations of T.S. Eliot’s Four Quartets and of a selection of American poetry.
 He was born in Bethlehem, studied at the Arab College in Jerusalem. He read English literature at Fitzwilliam House, Cambridge. He lived in Iraq since 1948. He wrote novels, short stories, criticism on art and literature, and three volumes of poetry. He translated Hamlet, King Lear, Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury, and other works.
 El-Azama, Nazeer., “The Tammuzi Movement and the influence of T.S. Eliot on Badr Shakir Al-Sayya”, Critical Perspectives on Modern Arabic Literature, edited by Issa J. Boullata, 1st edition, Three Continents Press, inc. Washington, 1980, P. 215.
 S. Moreh. Modern Arabic Poetry 1800-1970, Leiden, The Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1976, p. 279.
 Salma Khadra Jayyusi. “Contemporary Arabic Poetry: Vision and Attitudes” in R.C. Ostle (ed), Studies in Modern Arabic Literature, London: Aris & Phillips Ltd, 1975, p. 48.
 El-Azama, Nazeer., “Sa´adeh, al-Ustura wa al-Shi’r” in Fikr, vol. 43-46, Dec. 1980- April 1981, p. 119.
 The medium in which the Tammuzi poets published their works. It was founded by Yusuf al-Khal in 1957 and lasted till 1967..
 Barout, M. G., “Tajroubat al-Hadetha fi Majallat Shi’r” in Fikr, op. cit., p. 44.
 Barout, M. G., “Tajroubat al-Hadetha fi Majallat Shi’r” in Fikr, vol. 64, Spring 1985, p.53.
 For a translated collection of his poems, see Abdullah al-Udhari (ed.) Modern Poetry of the Arab World, England: Penguin Books, 1986, pp. 51-58; see also Issa J Boullata, Modern Arab Poets 1950- 1975, London: Heinemann, 1976, pp. 34-41.
 Fuad Sa´id Haddad. “Khalil Hawi: A Graceful Poet from the Vineyards of Lebanon” in Middle East Quartely, Summer 1995, Vol. 2, No. 7, p. 27.
 Idid., p. 28.
 His widely popular plays included: (1) Lawala al-Muhami, (1924), Dar al-Ahad, (Beirut, 1951); (2) Qudiya 'l-Amr, (Beirut, 1926); (3) Nakhb al- Aduw, Maktabat al-Kashshaf, (Beirut, 1946); (4) Hafnat Rih, Dar al-Ilm li-'l-Malayin, (Beirut, 1848); (5) Al-Manbudh, (Beirut, 1953).
 His short stories included: (1) Al-Thalj al-Aswad wa Qisas Ukhra, Maktabat al-Rashshaf, (Beirut); (2) Ghabat al-Kafur, Dar al-'Ilm li-'l-Malayin, (Beirut, 1951), 132 pp.; (3) al-Kharif, Dar al-Sharq al-Jadid, (Beirut, 1954), 140 pp.; (4) Taballaghu wa Ballighu, Dar al-Jil al-Jadid, (Beirut, 1955), 168 pp.
 His essays included (1) Ghadan Tuqfil al-Madina, Dar al-Sharq al-Jadid, (Beirut, 1956) and (2) Ghubar al Buhayra, Dar al-Sharq al-Jadid, (Beirut, 1956). He also wrote Ana wa al-Tannin, Dar al-Majani, (Beirut, 1961) and Riyah Fi Shira'i, Dar al-Majani, (Beirut, 1960).
 Howell, Alfred H. “Sa’id Taki Deen: 1904-1960”, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 1994, Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 37.
 Dayah, John. Sa’id Taky Deen, Part II 1928-1948, Beirut, 1979, pp. 10- 11, 177-179..
 Zoghaib, Henri. Sa’id Taky Deen And Living Literature: An Appreciation of His Literary Career”, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 1994, Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 38.
Sa´adeh's impact on Literature, Music and the Arts
Dr. Edmond Melhem
 See Ramiz Hourani, Literary Criticism and Its Intellectuals Fundamentals in the Philosophy of Antun Sa´adeh, op. cit, p. 230. According to anoth account, Sa’id was reportedly admitted to the SSNP prior to Sa´adeh’s execution in 1949 (Sa’id was then over the statutory age of 40) with special permission from Antun Sa´adeh. See Alfred H. Howell “Sa’id Taki Deen: 1904-1960”, op. cit., p. 35.
 Zoghaib, Henri. Sa’id Taky Deen And Living Literature: An Appreciation of His Literary Career”, Middle East Quarterly, op. cit., p. 41.
 Ibid., p. 38.
 See Rabia´ah Abi Fadel, The Impact of Antun Sa´adeh on the Scholars of his Era (Athar Antun Sa´adeh Fi Udabah’ ´Asrihi), Al-Rukin, Lebabon, 2002, pp. 220-227.
 Quoted in Roger Allen (ed). Modern Arabic Literature. New York: The Ungar Publishing Company, 1987, p. 188.
 Quoted in Roger Allen (ed). Modern Arabic Literature. Op. cit., p. 190.
 Ibid., p. 191.
 Rabia´ah Abi Fadel, The Impact of Antun Sa´adeh on the Scholars of his Era , op. cit., p. 216.
 A Syrian poet and critic. A highly cultivated man, he was fluent in Arabic, French, English, and Turkish. He authored books of criticism, many articles, and in 1946 coauthored a collection of prose poetry, Siryal.
 El-Azama, Nazeer., op. cit., p. 128.
 Al-‘Abed Hammud, Muhammad. “Sa´adeh: A Scholar”, al-Bina’, issue 880, 12/7/1997.
 Debs, Yusuf. Fi Mawkib al-Nahda (In the Processions of Renaissance), Beirut: Fikr Publications, 1986, p. 182.
 See the daily Lebanese newspaper An-Nahar, issue 4293, 9 September, 1949.
 Abdul-Satir, Mustafa. Shou’un Quaoumyya [National Issues], op. cit., p. 38.
 Daniel Pipes, “Radical Politics and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party”, International. Journal of Middle East Studies, 20 (1988), pp. 311-312.
 Ibid., p. 303.
 Quoted in ibid., p. 312.
 Rabia´ah Abi Fadel Antun Sa´adeh: The Mahajari Scholar and Critic, op. cit., p. 91.
 Al-Bina’, issue 673, 4 March 1989.
 This interview was reproduced at http://www.machghara.com/index.htm. See also Beshara, Adel. “Zaki Nassif: The Master Is Dead” in Al-Mashriq, June 2004, Vol. 3, No. 9, p. 108.
 Rabia´ah Abi Fadel Antun Sa´adeh: The Mahajari Scholar and Critic, op. cit., p. 86.
 Al-Bina’, issue 673, 4 March 1989.
 Her name [Nidal] means struggle. See “Nidal Al-Ashqar: Urban Warrior” A Profile by Mona Ghandour in Al-Ahram Weekly On-line, 23 - 29 November 2000, Issue No. 509; in www.ahram.org.eg/weekly/2000/509/profile.htm
 Nidal was specialized in acting and directing at the Royal Academy for the Dramatic Art in London.
 Nidal al-Ashqar is the daughter of Assad al-Ashqar, a historian and former president of the SSNP, and the sister of Ghassan al-Ashqar, an SSNP representative in the Lebanese Parliament. She has been nominated a Trustee by the SSNP owing to her outstanding contribution and struggle for the cause of the party.
 Among them Women in Love, Shagarat Al-Dorr, Harb Al-Basous, Zanoubia Malikat Tadmor (Zanoubia: Queen of Palmyra, Tadmor) and Milleh wa Ramad. Her latest work is a play titled Munamnamat (Mosaics) by Saadallah Wannous with a theme related to Tamerlane’s entry into the Levant, in the fourteenth century.