Saving May:
The Story of how Sa'adeh tried to save May Ziadeh from the Ghoul
Edmond Melhem
Antun Sa'adeh, socio-political theorist and founder of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party, did not consider literature as falling outside his purview, and resultantly did not refrain from literary criticism - which for him often meant harshly criticizing the noted Syrian writers of his day. Nevertheless, there were a few men and women of letters he regarded as truly great and worthy of his praise. Among these was the famed Jubran Khalil Jubran (1883-1931), whom he considered the embodiment of what the modern Syrian emigrant should be, mentioning him explicitly in the explanation of the seventh basic principle of his political party, the SSNP.(1)
Another literary figure that won Sa'adeh's admiration was the pioneer female writer Marie Elias Ziyadeh (1886-1941), who became known as "Miss May." This famous writer, a woman of exceptional intellect, was of Lebanese-Palestinian origin. She was born in Nazareth on 11 February 1886 to Elias Ziyadeh, who had moved to Palestine from his native Lebanese village of Shatoul, and Nozha Mu'ammer, a well-educated Palestinian woman. At the turn of the century, the Ziyadeh family migrated to Egypt and settled in Cairo, where Elias became the owner of a successful newspaper, Al-Mahrusa, in which May started publishing her poetry in both French and Arabic under the pen name Isis Copia. In 1911, she translated several poems from her first French collection "Fleurs de Reve" into Arabic and published them in Jurji Zaydan's renowned Al-Hilal newspaper. The same year, May published - under the pseudonym Aidah, her second poetry collection, "Aidah's Diary," - also in French. When she began writing in Arabic, she settled on the pen name "May," which was proposed by her mother and composed of the first and last letters of her original Christian name. It was under this more acceptable name to Arabic readers, preceded by the appellation "Miss," that she was to achieve fame.
In 1917, May graduated from the newly opened Egyptian University, where she had studied history, philosophy and modern sciences. The fact that she learnt French before Arabic during her early education in Lebanon  did not prevent her from becoming one of the most distinguished Arabic writers of the early 20th century.(2) In Egypt, May studied the Qur'an under a number of Azharite shaykhs and was guided through the labyrinthine structures of Arabic language and calligraphy by famed Egyptian liberal theorist Lutfi Al-Sayyid (1872-1936).
Poetry was the first literary genre she explored. Her book Dhulumat wa Ashi'a (Darkness and Rays), published by Al-Hilal in 1933, revealed her skill in poetic composition. Still studying, she continued to publish her prose poetry (shi'r manthur) as well as other literary pieces in Arabic newspapers and magazines like Al-Hilal, Al-Ahram, Al-Siyasa and the Lebanese magazine Al-Zuhour. Her famous poetic prose work Ayna Watani? (Where is My Homeland?) reflected her feeling of being an outsider in a society traditionally dominated by men.
Professor Yunan Labib Rizk, elaborating on May's relationship with Al-Ahram - which quickly invited her to join its editorial staff, publishing her writings extensively and allocating considerable space on its front page to her frequent lectures, states:

Clearly Al-Ahram felt she was a great asset. It featured her articles prominently, published the poems of the 'the brilliant poetess' amid great fanfare, honoured her by choosing her to preside over an event called 'the Journalistic Feast' and hailed her using such tributes as: 'If the Lebanese had difficulties in coming to Egypt to participate in the homage to the Prince of Poets [Ahmed Shawqi], at least we, since we are in Egypt, should pay homage to the "Princess of Writers," whose country we have long envied for its claim to her'.(3)

May turned out to be a prolific writer, contributing to the modernization of Arabic language and thought in nearly every field. Having mastered at least five languages, she skillfully translated novels from English, German and French into Arabic. She also experimented with the genre of short stories and consistently championed women's rights in her books and lectures. Being herself an activist for the emancipation of women, she wrote sensitive biographical studies of three pioneer female writers and poets: A'isha al-Taymouriyya, Malak Hifni Nassif and Warda al-Yaziji.
In Cairo, May ran the most famous literary salon in the Arab world during the 1920s and '30s. Open to men and women of varied backgrounds and modelled on the French example, the salon attracted the greatest writers, poets and intellectuals of the region. Among those who attended the frequent gatherings were Khalil Mutran, Abbas Mahmud Al-'Aqqad, the Azharite Shaykh Mustafa 'Abd al-Raziq, Shibli Shumayyil, Ya'qub Sarruf, Antoine Al-Jumayyil, owner of Al-Zuhour, Taha Hussein, Nile poet Hafez Ibrahim and the "Prince of Arab Poets," Ahmad Shawqi.(4) 
With her passing, May left behind more than 15 books of poetry, literature and translations. Various collections of her previously unknown works have appeared during the last few years. These include prose poems, speeches, short stories, theatrical plays as well as collections of essays and articles on travel, literature, art, criticism, linguistics and social reform.
Much has been written about May, especially by admirers who frequented her salon. Some of them developed a romantic passion for her, the most famous being the Egyptian writer-philosopher Abbas Mahmud Al-'Aqqad. But few systematic studies of May Ziyadeh and her thought appeared before 1982. Her various works, reflecting her eclectic interests, remained for the most part scattered and sometimes out of print. Two collections serving to rectify this unfortunate trend were the bibliographical references of the Lebanese scholar Rose Ghurayyib(5)  and a selection of unedited articles compiled by Faruq Saad,(6)  lawyer and lecturer at the Institute of Fine Arts at the Lebanese University. In 1982, Salma al-Haffar al-Kuzbari, a Syrian writer, published the first complete edition of May's works, which included previously unpublished documents, letters, speeches, lectures, essays and manuscripts.(7)  A few years later, al-Kuzbari and other academics including Antoine Muhsin al-Qawwal,(8)  Joseph Zaydan, Ahmad Husayn al-Tamawi and others, collected and published the various unknown works of May Ziyadeh, fashioning a picture vastly different relative to the earlier academic assessment of this leading Arab writer.(9)
May Ziyadeh died in Cairo on 19 October 1941. She was buried in the Maronite Cemetery of Misr Al-Qadima.

Sa'adeh and May

As soon as Antun Sa'adeh heard of May's death, "felt all his thoughts focus on this writer." He immediately wrote a lengthy article entitled "The Last Days of May,"  in which he articulated his opinion of May Ziyadeh and elaborated on the circumstances which led him to visit her in hospital some months before her passing.(10)
Sa'adeh labeled May a "great scholar" and a "blessing from Providence for a defeated nation and, resultantly, a misplaced blessing."(11) According to him, precious few male scholars could match her for her eloquence, wit and integrity. As he elaborates:

No great scholar was born among the women of Syria during the last centuries such as Marie Ziyadeh. I say with conviction that among the male scholars of Egypt and Syria with whom I have made contact and whose works I have read, I have found but precious few who can stake a claim to be like her [May Ziyadeh] in terms of education, sentiment and talent.(12)

The circumstances that led Sa'adeh to visit May Ziyadeh in hospital were related to her supposed insanity. Around 1935, May fell into deep depression. This has been partly attributed to the death, in the early thirties, of her parents as well as that of her distant lover Jubran Khalil Jubran, with whom she had been in correspondence for over two decades - though the two never actually met.(13)  Vulnerable, May Ziyadeh found herself the target of the patriarchal social conventions she often railed against and, being a single woman without her family's backing, lacking the qualifications for continuing her salon-related activities. Following her slide into depression, her relatives seized on the opportunity afforded by her effective incapacitation to confiscate her possessions - particularly her estate, claiming that she had lost her mind and was no longer able to manage her properties. They had her declared legally incompetent and committed her to a hospital for mental disease in Beirut. 
While in hospital, a handful of remaining friends, one of them the famous mahjar (emigrant) writer Amin al-Rayhani, tried to get her released.(14)  Meanwhile, Sa'adeh, who learnt about May Ziyadeh's unhappy situation from his friend Anis Nassif of Shuwayr, was equally moved. In  "The Last Days of May," he describes the actions that he and his party took to help release May and rescue her from her relative - the conniving "Dr. Ziyadeh," who had cleverly utilized his position as a man of medicine to declare her insane and have her confined to a single hospital room in complete isolation.

With May at the Hospital

Sa'adeh, accompanied by his friend Anis Nassif, visited May at the hospital. The visit was very short and interrupted by Anis' mother and sister, who unexpectedly dropped by to see her. As soon as May saw Mrs. Nassif and her daughter, she could no longer control her emotions and began to cry.(15)  Despite its short duration, the visit proved to Sa'adeh that May needed immediate outside intervention and was in a truly desperate situation. When Sa'adeh assured her of his willingness and determination to help her, she replied in a hopeless tone: "I do not believe that changing my situation is possible‚Ķ," to which Sa'adeh rejoined: "Mine are not words of momentary encouragement. I do not want words to come before my actions."(16) 
Sa'adeh left the hospital determined to save May. When he discovered that Amin al-Rayhani was preparing a letter to the Egyptian Consul in Beirut to get him to intervene on the grounds that May was an Egyptian citizen by law, he made known his opposition to such a move. The principle of sovereignty was seemingly his concern. He did not think that it would be wise to consult the Egyptian Consulate regarding May's case with the justification that May was residing in Lebanon and her case should be a Lebanese matter.  He told Anis: "I will take care of this matter myself and would like you to reassure May that she will gain her freedom."(17)  Sa'adeh's behaviour during this period indicates a preoccupation with, and a fervent desire to rescue May. The question arises, "Why would he trouble himself with the plight of a writer who is not related in any way to the Syrian Social Nationalist Party?" May Ziyadeh was not a friend of Antun Sa'adeh, neither was she a professed believer in the ideology of Syrian nationalism. This author is uncertain as to whether May was even familiar with Sa'adeh's ideology, though she may have been acquainted with its general outlines, knowledgeable as she was when it came to current political concerns. May had written about certain ideologies that had been in vogue before the establishment of the SSNP. In a series of articles  published shortly after the Russian Revolution, May raised the issue of socialism in relation to other political ideologies of the day.(18) Nevertheless, Sa'adeh was totally committed to helping this writer. The following reasons may help explain his dedication:
1- Sa'adeh did not believe that May was insane, as maintained by her relatives. He was of the opinion that she suffered from no mental or psychological problems, but rather was the victim of a conspiracy woven by her relative, Dr. Ziyadeh. How could he ignore her situation knowing that she was alone and defenceless, and subjected to maltreatment and oppression? This was probably the first motive that led Sa'adeh to intervene in May's case. Fighting oppression in society and defending its weak members were principles consistently advocated by Sa'adeh. They were moral benchmarks emphasized in many of his writings and comprising the essence of his teachings. This can be gleaned in particular from his short story Eid Sayyedat Saydnaya (The Feast of the Saydnaya Madonna), in which the main character, Ibrahim, volunteers to defend his beloved Najla when he sees her in trouble.  
2- This defenceless and demoralized person in need of help was no ordinary mortal, but an outstanding writer - particularly in Sa'adeh's eyes. Before meeting her, Sa'adeh had formed a positive impression of May after reading some of her works. Indeed, Sa'adeh's admiration of May Ziyadeh dated back to 1922, when he worked with his father in editing the latter's daily newspaper Al-Jaridah in Brazil. At that time, Sa'adeh wrote a series of literary articles analyzing one of May's works: Al-Musawat (Equality).(19)  His  positive impressions regarding her character were confirmed by their short conversation during his brief visit. He came away imbued with a feeling of enormous respect for her, claiming that May was a scholar endowed with the sort of intellectual ability and sound knowledge that he could not find in any of the major scholars and literati of the day - including Amin al-Rayhani and Mikhail Nu'aymah, whom he knew and whose works he had been reading for a long time.(20) Hence, helping May Ziyadeh could be seen as a moral obligation and even a national duty. If other friends and admirers of May, including Amin al-Rayhani, offered her help, would it be proper for Antun Sa'adeh to remain aloof? Refraining from intervening on her behalf would  hardly help his image and his party's reputation in the eyes of intellectuals and reformers. But image-driven concerns were but one aspect of the affair, for, in speaking of intellectuals and reformists, May's troubles, given the similarities between the two rebellious and highly unconventional Syrians, could have struck a personal chord insofar as Sa'adeh was concerned. Considering the strong-willed, even obstinate May something of a kindred spirit, he could not but have reacted with a sense of personal shock and indignation at her sudden downfall. As reported by friend and associate Jubran Jurayj, who spent time with him during this period, a very agitated Sa'adeh would reflect: "How can such things happen? May Ziyadeh was accused of being insane, but she is not."(21)
3- Sa'adeh's intervention in May's case can also be seen as a political confrontation between the SSNP and its opponents: The Jesuits and certain pro-French Maronite clergymen. When Sa'adeh, after having heard of May's plight, paid a visit to his friend "Amir" Amin Arslan, and told him of his intention to visit her at the hospital, Arslan advised Sa'adeh not to intervene in the matter, as he might be disappointed by the consequences, which could prove harmful to the SSNP. Arslan, Sa'adeh noted, "was a noble man and a recognized politician during the Turkish era. He was one of the members of the Central Administrative Council (CAC)  who were arrested and exiled by the French in 1920." (22) He told Sa'adeh that Dr. Ziyadeh was an influential man and that he had close relations with the higher ranks of the Maronite and Jesuit clergy as well as the French Mandate authorities. Moreover, his uncle was once a candidate for the position of President of Lebanon. Indeed, Dr. Ziyadeh would not engage in such an action if he were not certain about his networks and backing. But Sa'adeh insisted on visiting May, asserting that even if he were to have foreknowledge of any adverse repercussions this might trigger, he still would not hesitate to rescue her. Accordingly, it can be argued that this was an opportunity for Sa'adeh to re-engage his opponents - who had attacked him and his party in the past, on a matter of principle.(23)

Sa'adeh Advocating May's Cause

As soon as Sa'adeh reached his office following his visit to the hospital, he wrote an article which he immediately sent to the editor of the party's paper, Al-Nahda, with instructions to display it prominently on the front page of the coming issue. It appeared on 19 January , 1938, under the title "The Cause of the Famous Writer May Before the Public Prosecutor's Office and the [French] High Delegation; An Exceptionally Serious Affair."(24)  The article aroused public interest in May's case in Lebanon, news of which soon spread to other parts of geographical Syria.
In publishing this article, Sa'adeh aimed to achieve four objectives:
1.      To inform the public of the seriousness of May Ziyadeh's cause and uncover its concealed aspects.
2.      To put the whole affair on the right legal route, under the jurisdiction of the central office of the Public Prosecutor of the Lebanese Republic and, by doing so, preventing the Egyptian Consul from interfering in this affair, the events of which were taking place in Syrian, not Egyptian, territory.
3.      To draw the attention of the French Commission, as Syria's representative in international law, to the interference of the Egyptian Consul in the affair of May Ziyadeh, who was residing in Lebanon.
4.      To hold the Lebanese Public Prosecutor's Office and the [French] High Delegation responsible for the cruelty visited upon May Ziyadeh.
Sa'adeh asserted that all these objectives were realized following the publication of his article, which created a sense of public concern and prompted condemnation of May's persecutors. Many people phoned the offices of Al-Nahda to inquire about May and the details of the affair. This overwhelming sense of concern about May Ziyadeh was even more apparent within SSNP circles throughout the country. SSNP members and students in various branches convened meetings to discuss the issue. Sa'adeh also revealed that a suggestion to organize a large demonstration was forwarded to the party's central administration by some SSNP women who had convened a meeting in the home of Harriyah Arslan, wife of Amin Arslan. The women expressed their willingness to march at the front of the demonstration to indicate their support for May Ziyadeh. Sa'adeh received similar suggestions from other branches of the party, but was not keen on demonstrations before consultations with official circles as well as May's relatives had been exhausted.

The SSNP's legal Initiatives

Sa'adeh took further action. Accompanied by his friend Anis Nassif, he called on the Chief Central Examining Magistrate, Hassan Qabalan,  in order to brief him on the seriousness of May's situation.(25) Qabalan thought it would be better to put the matter before the Appellate Public Prosecutor, Alfred Thabet. Sa'adeh did not waste any time. He immediately approached Thabet, who in turn advised Sa'adeh that he could intervene only after a formal application was lodged with the court. Sa'adeh left the Office of the Prosecutor feeling that the Lebanese judiciary was - for reasons entirely political, reluctant to get involved in May's case. Turning to his friend Anis Nassif, Sa'adeh said: "If none of May's relatives is willing to lodge an application with the Office of the Public Prosecutor, I will be obliged to do so myself."(26)   
Sa'adeh asked Nassif to meet the Central Public Prosecutor, Wajih al-Kuri, the next day. At the same time, he continued his efforts to contact the higher authorities in the State. He was thinking specifically of the French Commission which, according to the Mandate laws governing Lebanon, should act to prevent the interference of the Egyptian Consul.
Sa'adeh himself was given an appointment, at his request, to meet with the head of the political section of the Commission, Mr. Kiffer, with whom he had had a few contacts in the past. At the meeting, Sa'adeh explained May's case and complained about the interference of the Egyptian Consul in it. He emphasized that May's case was a matter of deep concern to him and expressed his hope that the Commission would deal with it swiftly and impartially so as to guarantee the personal freedom and civil rights of this prominent writer. Kiffer made Sa'adeh a verbal promise that he would do his best to help.
Meanwhile, the Central Public Prosecutor, Wajih al-Kuri, promised to personally intervene in May's case after meeting with Anis Nassif. Al-Kuri visited May at the hospital the following day and even he was stunned - the hardened prosecutor was moved by her abject living conditions and solitary confinement. He immediately went to see Dr. Ziyadeh to discuss her case. Dr Ziyadeh confronted him with medical reports purportedly confirming May's madness and functional incompetence. Dr. Ziyadeh, as Nassif pointed out to Sa'adeh, was a cunning man not easily outmaneuvered.
But Sa'adeh could wait no longer. He asked Anis to prepare May's house for her imminent release, preparing to use force if necessary to achieve this. Anis requested he be given at least another day to see the Public Prosecutor, who upon meeting with him again promised his help and appeared very sincere. Sa'adeh acquiesced, but even as he did so, instructed a group of SSNP members, among whom was activist and writer Abdullah Qubursi, to mobilize for a possible rescue operation.

Protecting May

The campaign against May's freedom by her enemies was not over. A few days following her release - performed legally and officially, Sa'adeh was contacted his friend Anis Nassif and told that May was not safe in her house. He said that some persons claiming to be relatives of May had attempted to enter her house, but that her personal assistant prevented them from doing so. When Sa'adeh heard this story, he immediately called the SSNP General Executive of Beirut together as well as the officer in charge of the volunteers' group and instructed them to make the necessary arrangements to protect May Ziyadeh from intruders. The officials immediately assigned a small SSNP militia to the house.
May accepted an invitation to deliver a public lecture at the American University of Beirut. Sa'adeh alleged that May's enemies tried to put off this lecture or at the very least contribute to its failure. They attempted, shortly before it was scheduled to begin, to forcibly enter May's house, but were prevented from doing so by SSNP security guards. On 29 March 1938, was driven to the AUB to give her lecture escorted by SSNP bodyguards. May had had extensive experience in lecturing. In the past, she had delivered a series of lectures on a broad range of subjects. This time she chose "The Mission of the Writer to Arab Life" as a title for her lecture. Antun Sa'adeh attended the lecture himself and was impressed by May's talk. "May," Sa'adeh commented, "is not a befuddled scholar who speaks confusedly."(27) 
At the end of the lecture, Sa'adeh, in the midst of some jubilant SSNP members, walked towards the Waiting Room of the West Hall of the AUB where May was surrounded by some friends and lecturers  and congratulated her on giving an excellent lecture.(28)
Only after May had spoken publicly and proved her mental competence did Sa'adeh come to the conclusion that his party's mission had been accomplished. Accordingly, he sent instructions to terminate the mission of the security guards assigned to May's house.

Unveiling the Truth

The campaign against May by her relatives and opponents continued in Egypt despite her attainment of freedom in Lebanon. Their campaign reached its peak when they formed a council for her guardianship and issued a statement stipulating that May should be kept in complete isolation owing to her mental state. The Egyptian Consul in Beirut conveyed this statement to the Lebanese Government. But Abdullah Qubursi, in a series of fiery articles published in Al-Nahda, was able to annul the statement with a strong and convincing legal reply. Consequently, the campaign against May dissipated and the famous writer returned to Egypt a free person.(29) 
 
Sa'adeh Visits May Again

Just before May left for Egypt, Sa'adeh paid her a visit accompanied by Dr. Charles Malek and party member Fakhri Ma'louf. During this visit, May spoke about how she was declared insane by her relatives and about her awful experience and suffering during her stay at the mental institution. Sa'adeh noted that instead of being left alone to relax and enjoy some tranquility after what she had been exposed to, she was surrounded by rowdy people. They turned up at May's house every evening to chat, play cards, and amuse themselves. Sa'adeh did not approve of their actions and argued that May should be left alone to recuperate. May, remarked Sa'adeh, needed no more than two considerate people, who know that silence sometimes is more precious than gold, to be by her side.(30)
That was the last time Sa'adeh saw May Ziyadeh. The duties and responsibilities of his position as the leader of the SSNP occupied every minute of his time and prevented him from seeing her again. However, Sa'adeh recalled that two months after his last visit to May, he left Lebanon for Europe and then South America after stopping for a few days in Cyprus. 
Towards the end of 1940, Sa'adeh read in a Syrian newspaper a letter written by May two years earlier and sent to her friend Layla Nafa'a. In this letter May wrote: "In the past period I was slow in writing to you due to my pre-occupation with some serious and difficult problems. Would anyone claim that life is possible without personal freedom? My personal freedom was attacked and stripped away by my relatives, who, enticed by money and estates, accused me, following the death of my parents, of being insane and spread various rumors about me far and wide."(31) 
    
The Ghoul Kills May Ziyadeh

At the beginning of 1941, a newspaper extract on May Ziyadeh was brought to Sa'adeh. It was originally published in the Sout al-Ahrar paper in Beirut on 18 October 1940. It said that May had appointed a lawyer in Beirut to claim her inheritance. The lawyer experienced difficulty in getting the Mukhtar [Justice of the Peace] of Shatoul, Father Yusuf Ziyadeh, to certify the legal application for submission to the court, as required by the law. The Mukhtar refused to certify the application because he was a cousin of May's and thus one of the principal beneficiaries of the inheritance. He and the remainder of the heirs had already taken possession of May's father's share. Sa'adeh felt that another battle for May was underway. It reminded him of the notorious Ghoul of Arab folklore, the ferocious beast often mentioned by his father, Dr. Khalil Sa'adeh, in his articles and lectures. This Ghoul, Sa'adeh proclaimed, had killed May Ziyadeh.
The last days of May, Sa'adeh proclaimed, were the worst ever experienced by a Syrian writer. But there probably was not another scholar in the entire world who could have endured the pain and oppression endured for so long by May. In the end, she succumbed to the terrifying and destructive Ghoul - the Ghoul that had stalked her for so long - the Ghoul the Syrian Social Nationalist Movement has prepared a sharpened sword to slay.

Endnotes:
1. Other great figures of ancient and modern times mentioned by Sa'adeh included Zeno the Stoic, Bar Salibi, St John Chrysostom, Ephraim, al-Ma'ari, Deek-el-Jin of Emessa, al-Kawakibi and others. See Antun Sa'adeh, Al-Muhadarat al-'Ashr (The Ten Lectures), Beirut: SSNP, 1976, p. 105.
2. May received her elementary education in al-Yusufiyyat Nuns' school and later in Ain Tura before she moved to Beirut, where she completed her secondary studies.
3. Rizk, Yunan Labib. "A Diwan of Contemporary Life (427)", in Al-Ahram Weekly Online, in Issue no. 571, 31 Jan - 6 Feb 2002, http://www.ahram.org.eg/WEEKLY/2002/571/chrncls.htm.
4. Al-'Aqqad mentions the names of more than thirty personalities who were regular guests in May's weekly Tuesday salon gatherings. See Abas Mahmud al-Aqqad, Rijal 'Araftuhum. Cairo 1963, p. 162. See also Ziegler, Antje, "May Ziadeh Rediscovered", http://leb.net/isis/z/ziegler.html, (originally published May 1997).
5. See Ziegler, Antje, "May Ziadeh Rediscovered,", http://leb.net/isis/z/ziegler.html.
6. Faruq Saad, Baqat Min Hada'iq May. Beirut 1973 (2nd edition, Beirut 1980), part II (anthology).
7. Salma al-Haffar al-Kuzbari (ed.), May Ziyadeh: Al-Mu'allafat al-Kamila (The Complete Works), 2 vols., Beirut 1982.
8. Antoine Muhsin al-Qawwal, Nusus Kharij al-Majmu'a (Extracts Outside the Collection), Beirut, 1993.
9. See Antje Ziegler. "May Ziadeh Rediscovered," op. cit.
10. Sa'adeh, Antun, Al-Sira' al-Fikri fil-Adab as-Suri, op. cit., pp. 181- 196
11. Ibid., p. 181
12. Ibid.
13. Her extended correspondence with this foremost representative of Arabic mahjar literature gave rise to speculation about the nature of their relationship and speculation that a love affair had blossomed.
14. See his defence of May Ziyadeh written in 1938 (in Arabic) explaining her difficulties during the tragic days of 1938. Qissati Ma' May, (My Story with May), 1980 [posth.], The Arab Institute for Research and Publication, Beirut, Lebanon. Reprinted 1983, 1986 and 1989, Beirut.
15. Sa'adeh, Antun, Al-Sira' al-Fikri fil-Adab as-Suri, op. cit. p. 187.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid., p. 188.
18. These articles were later collected in a book. See al-Kuzbari (ed.), May Ziyadeh: Al-Mu'allafat al-Kamila, vol. 1, 533-642.
19. This series of articles was published in Al-Jaridah starting in issue 95 of 7th December 1922 and ending in issue 101 of 14th December 1922. This series is re-printed in one article titled "Nazarat fi al-Musawat (Views on Equality) in Antun Sa'adeh, Al-'Athar al-Kamilah (Complete Works) vol. 4 Marhalat ma Qabl al-Ta'sis (1921-1932) (The Stage Prior to the Formation of the SSNP), compiled by the Cultural Department of the SSNP, Beirut, 1975, pp. 36-47.
20. Sa'adeh, Antun, Al-Sira' al-Fikri fil-Adab as-Suri, op. cit. p. 188.
21. Jurayj, Jubran, Min al-Ju'bah (From the Case History), vol. IV, Beirut: SSNP, 1993, P. 41.
22. The CAC of the Mutasarrifiyyah was created in 1861 as an indirectly elected body to represent the various sects and ethnic groups that inhabited Mount Lebanon and to act as a quasi-legislative body helping the Mutasarrif in running the affairs of the Mutasarrifiyyah. Its power was stipulated in the internationally recognized and supported Règlement Organique and encompassed a variety of areas such as taxes, land tenure, local government and public works. See Abdo I. Baaklini, Legislative and Political Development: Lebanon, 1842-1972, Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1976, pp. 49-57.
23. See my work: The Syrian Social Nationalist Party and the Question of Lebanon. Melbourne, 2002, pp. 53-60. See also Salim Muja'is, Antun Sa'adeh wa al-'Iklirius al-Maruni, (Antun Sa'adeh and the Maronite Clergy), USA: [n.], 1993; and Adel Beshara, Syrian Nationalism: An Inquiry into the Political Philosophy of Antun Sa'adeh, Beirut: Bissan Publications, 1995.
24.  This article was reprinted in Sa'adeh, Antun, al-'Athar al-Kamilah (Complete Works) vol. 4 (1938), compiled by the Cultural Department of the SSNP, Beirut, 1980, pp. 21-23.
25.  Sa'adeh revealed that this Magistrate had been legally involved in the affair of the SSNP during the arrests of 1936. He had interrogated Sa'adeh and other members for about four months during which a good friendship, based on mutual respect, had developed. Sa'adeh admired him for his knowledge, integrity and good judgment.
26. Sa'adeh, Antun, Al-Sira' al-Fikri fil-Adab as-Suri, op. cit., p. 190.
27.  Ibid, p. 194.
28.  Among them were Atta Ayoubi's wife and Dr. Charles Malek, Lecturer in Philosophy at the AUB.
29.  Sa'adeh, Antun, Al-Sira' al-Fikri fil-Adab as-Suri, op. cit., p. 193.
30. Ibid., pp. 194-195.
31. Ibid., p. 195.